Read Alles Leben ist Problemlösen. Über Erkenntnis, Geschichte und Politik by Karl R. Popper Online

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Karl Popper, einer der einflußreichsten Denker dieses Jahrhunderts, hat an diesem Buch bis zu seinem Tod gearbeitet. In den 16 Texten dieser Auswahl kommen noch einmal die großen Themen zur Sprache, die sein Lebenswerk beherrscht haben....

Title : Alles Leben ist Problemlösen. Über Erkenntnis, Geschichte und Politik
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ISBN : 9783492223003
Format Type : Paperback
Number of Pages : 336 Pages
Status : Available For Download
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Alles Leben ist Problemlösen. Über Erkenntnis, Geschichte und Politik Reviews

  • Hamidreza Amiri
    2019-01-22 09:58

    بخش اول کتاب به فلسفه علم و معرفت شناسی و مسائل علوم طبیعی می‌پردازه و بخش دوم هم به تاریخ و سیاست.این کتاب یک مجموعه از 15 سخنرانی و مصاحبه پوپره.اگر با پوپر و نظریاتش آشنایی چندانی ندارید، این کتاب میتونه یک دید کلی از نظرات پوپر به شما بده.همیشه با خوندن نظرات پوپر درباره علم به وجد می‌اومدم و میدیدم که چه نگاه عمیق و خوب و به قول خودش "انتقادی" نسبت به مسائل داره.در بخش دوم هم فعالیت‌هاش رو درباره مسئله صلح خوندم و دیدم که چقدر تلاش میکرده که واقع‌گرایانه به مسائل جهانی نگاه کنه."ما چیزی نمی‌دانیم. این اولین نکته است.بنابراین ما باید بسیار متواضع باشیم. این دومین نکته است.دیگر اینکه نباید مدعی دانستن باشیم در حالی که چیزی نمی‌دانیم. این سومین نکته است.این کمابیش همان رویکردی است که می‌خواهم آن را رواج دهم. هرچند چشم‌انداز خوبی از آن نمی‌بینم."

  • Kachi A
    2019-01-02 11:18

    Chapter 7 is genius."A rationalist is simply someone for whom it is more important to learn than to be proved right..."

  • Bruce Caithness
    2018-12-27 13:59

    Perhaps a good place to start in this review of "All Life Is Problem Solving" is to focus on one essay, "Towards an Evolutionary Theory of Knowledge" written in 1989.Karl Popper (1902-1994) elegantly proposes that knowledge is linked to expectations. These expectations express theories of reality. Thus knowledge expresses theories of reality. We as with all living things have propensities to guess reality based on hypotheses which logically and psychologically precede observation. Encounters with evidence are the bumps that allow continual reformulation of these assumptions. This in no way implies that the universe separate from our perceptions is illusion. Indeed only fools or sophists would deny its existence, but what is the foundation for defining a "real" world? What is the real you? What is the real anything - statistically analyzed, dissected, named, viewed under an electron microscope, blasted with x rays or gamma rays, painted by Monet? If we open any dictionary on the word "knowledge" we find all sorts of circularity and assumptions that knowledge is primarily empirically derived. Popper's association of knowledge with expectation, or guessing, is a breakthrough in clarity. Animals and plants carry what can be defined as unconscious guesses or theories, namely their genes and other molecular and physiological codes. It is a world of propensities.Despite perceptual and cognitive limitations, living beings do seek truth and routinely test models against assumed facts. Truth should correspond with facts, but the degree of certainty of facts varies. Popper's attitude to the demarcation of science from other intellectual endeavours is that scientific enquiry should have no expectation of reaching a destination of final truth but rather it is about asking things about the universe in such a way that any answer is capable of being modified (indeed capable of being falsified) if better evidence appears. Every answer is provisional. Scientism, which positively declares truths, is not science..."scientifically proven" is a nonsense phrase that is unfortunately commonly used by laypersons and academics alike and distorts the value of the scientific method. Indeed, including and beyond science, all our knowledge is uncertain. Scientific testing corroborates our tentative theories it does not confirm them.Still at least in our universe, the world is roughly spherical even though many of our forefathers assumed that it was flat. The theory of evolution is similarly robust even if fine details have varying certainty. Thus some assumptions seem to be less wrong than others, i.e. have higher verisimilitude or truth likeness. Still, the demarcation of science and non-science hinges on phrasing any claim in such a way that it can potentially be proven wrong, not turned into an accretion of supporting premises that is unbreakable simply because it is amorphous. On this point it does not matter by which source the claim is reached e.g. inspiration might occur in a reverie, but rather how the hypothesis is expressed when presented to an audience. On a side note, I think too much criticism of Popper has been a sidetracked discussion of second-hand and often misattributed references rather than simply addressing his ethical challenge of making method accountable. This is unfortunate as it masks the value of demarcation in defending science against dogmatism. Creationism and intelligent design arguments tend to be accretions of self-supporting dogma rather than a critical discourse. On a personal note I would suggest that a corollary of Popper's thought is not cynicism but an attitude of openness to the unexpected. In narrow conceit, cynics overlook the corollary to the unprovable nature of reality namely that, precisely because we cannot prove otherwise, there is always room for surprises. Perhaps meaning cannot be demonstrated in a deterministic world i.e. it is not to be found in Schopenhauer's "World as Representation" but rather in the unexpected, the coincidental, the "World as Will". Popper stressed, unlike the logical positivists, that meaning can be found in unscientific statements. The search for truth (as a regulatory principle) hinges on inter-subjective criticism, not the shielding of our claims from refutation.Excessive expressions of certainty are bred from protesting too loudly. The universe is mysterious, we do not need to invent mystery unless we want to couple spiritual sentiment to social power and we should not fear that honest engagement will destroy mystery. There is much to surprise us. Even the prevailing metaphors in cosmology will have their used-by date. Any statement of belief should be capable of being modified or indeed discarded if the facts contradict it, but this does not mean that well-tested ideas should be let go lightly.Karl Popper distinguished between tacit knowledge and objective knowledge. We know there is a physical world (World 1), we know there is a mental world (tacit, World 2), and we know there is a world of codes and descriptions and formulae (World 3). Even when individuals die, worlds 1 and 3 still exist.Let us give Popper the last word: "I shall now try to give you a list of interesting conclusions that we can draw, and partly have drawn (although so far unconsciously) from our trivial proposition that animals can know something............"

  • Maryamnemati
    2019-01-03 10:57

    این کتاب دومین کتابی که از پوپر خوندم. پوپر همه چیزهایی که من حس میکنم و البته خیلی بیشتر از اون رو با کلماتی که اگه منم بودم همونها رو استفاده میکردم توضیح میده. کلا پوپر باعث میشه که خیلی از افکارم برای خودم ترجمه بشه.

  • محمدحسین
    2019-01-21 09:55

    مجموعه‌ی پانزده مقاله و گفتار از پوپر که توسط خود او در دو بخش تنظیم شده: بخش نخست مسائل علوم طبیعی و بخش دوم اندیشه‌هایی در باب تاریخ و سیاست. این پانزده مقاله و گفتار خواننده را با بسیاری از نظرات مهم و تاثیرگذار پوپر آشنا می‌کند. ترجمه آقای خواجیان هرچند قابل قبول است، اما چندان قوی و روان نیست. اما نظرات جذاب و جسورانه‌ی پوپر باعث شد از خواندن این کتاب لذت ببرم، گرچه پیش از این بیشتر این نظرات را، به ویژه بخش نخست، مفصل‌تر در کتابهای دیگر خوانده بودم.

  • Sahar Rose
    2019-01-21 16:15

    هذا النوع من الكتب يجعل عقلي يفكر ، يتسائل ، ويبحث عن الإجابات . مازلت في بدايته .لنا عودة لاحقاً. مصطلحاته عميقة لا استطيع فهمها :)

  • Oktay Özden
    2019-01-20 12:12

    Kitap Popper'in çeşitli ülkelerdeki Konferans Konuşmalarından oluşmakta. Birçok güncel konu üzerine yapılan konuşmalar; birçok olaya, hayata felsefeye, bilime karşı var olan fikirlerinizi değiştirecek düzeyde. Pozitivizme ilgi duyan herkesin okuması gereken bir kitap.

  • Abdulaziz
    2019-01-05 14:50

    الجيد في الكتاب أنه مبسط وتفهم من الجزء الاول منه فلسفة بوبر العلمية بكل وضوحالجزء الثاني كان عن التاريخ والسياسة ونقد الماركسية وضرورة السلام، مقالات متفرقة تستحق القراءة

  • Taha
    2018-12-27 12:51

    Ben açıkcası bu kitabı farklı bakış açıları kazanayım, yeni bir şeyler öğreneyim diye okudum. Nedense öyle bir beklentim vardı. Yani bu tür kitapları hep o amaçla okuyorum ama bu kitaptan yeni bir şey kazanamadım desem yeridir. Popper’in klasik egoist batılı liberal görüşlerini, batıyı, batı bilimini, batı sosyal hayatını ve kapitalizmini övmelerini okudum. Ya da aslında ben o kısımlarına daha fazla dikkat kesildim heralde çünkü daha büyük bi kısmını oluşturuyordu. Aslında bilimsel çalışmalarla ilgili ilk kısmı daha çok beğendim kısıtlı bilgime rağmen.Bir de kitap farklı yıllarda farklı yerlerde yaptığı konuşmalardan oluştuğu için doğal olarak adam kendini tekrar etmiş bu farklı zaman ve yerlerde ama bunların hepsi bir kitapta olunca da bıktırıyor devamlı aynı şeyleri okumak. Nihayetinde Popper okumuş olmak için okudum ve Popper’i tanımış oldum.

  • Alistair
    2019-01-15 11:53

    A very progressivist book. Popper comments heavily on scientific theory. Not a scientist, but he also became a philosopher without trying. He critically analysed Marxism and the Marxist interpretation of history and concluded its falsity as the end of class struggle as the theory seek to end via necessary revolutions and sometime inhumanity to defeat a capitalism which never existed according to popper. He is against idealism in science, quantum physics being just one.

  • Karim LmezgeldI
    2019-01-09 12:56

    مقالات و محاضرات تتناول مواضيع شتى اهما بالنسبة لي محاضرة حول النفس و الجسد و الحرية و مفهوم الديموقراذية و نقد الماركسية

  • Ege Özmeral
    2019-01-16 15:13

    Hayatımda en çabuk 5 yıldız verdiğim kitap oldu.19-21-31-631) Popper kitapta bilimin 'problem çözmek' ile başladığını ve bilgimizin 'duyu algılarımızla' başladığını düşüncesine karşı çıktığını söylüyor. Örnek olarak, birisi "lütfen saatinizi gözlemleyin" dese ne yapmamız gerektiğini bilmeyiz ama problem sununca işin değişeceğini söylüyor, elbetteki algılarımız problemi belirlemede bize yardımcıdırlar. Bu bana Kuhn'u hatılarttı, zira o da bilimin 'bulmaca çözmek' ile geliştiğini savunuyordu. Hatta 'astroloji'nin bilim olarak gelişmemesinin sebebini astrolojide çözülecek bulmaca olmamasına bağlıyor.2) "Genel olarak sağduyunun büyük bir hayranıyım; hatta eğer biraz olsun eleştirel olabilirsek, sağduyunun, olası bütün sorunsal durumlarda en değerli ve güvenilir yol gösterici olduğunu iddia ediyorum. Ama daima güvenilir değildir." Popper'la bu konuda hemfikir olmama çok şaşırdım, zira ben de sezgilerimizin biz düşünürken büyük yer kapladığını(biz fark etsek de fark etmesek de) düşünüyorum. Bunun yanı sıra bilim gibi hemen herkesin epistemolojik olarak güvendiği bir yöntem olmasının sebebi nesnel sağduyularımızla tümevarımı kabul ettiğimiz için olduğunu düşünüyorum.3) "Dışavurulmamış düşüncem olan ""bugün yağmur yağacak""tan, aynı içerikli, ancak dışavurulmuş bir önerme olan ""bugün yağmur yağacak""a doğru atılan adımın, inanılmaz büyüklükte, neredeyse bir uçurumun üzerinden atılmış bir adım olduğu tezini savunuyorum." Popper'a bu konu da hemfikir olmakla beraber bunu dile getirdiği için kendisine hayran kaldım, zira dilin bilginin nesnelleşmesi, iletilmesi ve bütün bunlar sayesinde bilimin ve felsefenin gelişmesi için büyük bir önemi olduğunu düşünüyorum.4) Popper yanlışlamacılığın o kadar da keskin olmadığını kabul ediyor. Bunun için çiçek aşısı örneği veriyor, milyonlarca çiçek aşısı yapılmış insandan yalnızca biri çiçeğe yakalansa, sorunun çiçek aşısında değil aşılamada veya başka bir şeyde olduğunu düşünürüz.5) Kitapta sık sık Newton ve Einstein kuramlarından örnek vermiş, bunun yanı sıra Freudçu psikanalizin de yanlışlanamayacağından bahsetmiş.

  • Laurent Dv
    2019-01-01 14:19

    Good summary of Popper's worldview and quite accessible. Perhaps the best place to get acquainted with Popper's science philosophy, especially chapters 1, 4 and 5. If I had known, I would had read this before his "Logic of scientific discovery".

  • Clorisu
    2019-01-19 14:20

    Standout sections: Ch1 (The Logic and Evolution of Scientific Theory); Ch10 (Against the Cynical Interpretation of History); and Ch15 (How I became a Philosophy Without Trying).Ch1: I highly recommend finding this book just to read chapter 1 for it's own sake. Extremely interesting view of the scientific method being an outgrowth of pre-scientific biological evolution, and common sense which works via trial-and-error. Science is this trial-and-error approach in a 4 stage model: Problem (or 'problem situation' - a problem judged by our current belief system), attempted solutions (theories, conjectures, and hypotheses in science), elimination of failed solutions (done consciously via scientists as opposed to unconsciously as in animalistic behaviours), and new problems which arise from critical discussion of our theories (essential to science being distinct from common sense trial-and-error, in written and verbal form we are able to consciously criticise the attempted solutions and results of others). There's a lot of other interesting things in this section.CH2: A very poorly argued essay about the mind-body problem. It's clear he didn't fully understand the positions he was attacking or have any understanding of mereology and type-token physicalism distinction. What he interestingly notes though is that our understanding of a distinction between consciousness and the world is socialized and not inherent.CH15: Very interesting. Popper talks about how he became a 'philosopher' without deciding to or really attempting to. He just did what interested him at each stage of his life and happened to be recognized for his efforts.--------following notes are unfinishedEPISTEMOLOGY AND THE PROBLEM OF PEACE- popper has experienced many tragedies but believes list is indescribably wonderful, but undoubtedly also terrible1. there is a difference btw knowledge and conjecture2. 3. so called scientific knowledge isnt knowledge, for it consists of only conjectures or hypotheses - even if some have gone through rigorous testing.4. scientific knowledge is conjectural knowledge - it guesses, not knows. its to console people who think they cannot do without wanting certain knowledge.5. such people have dangerous need for 'suggestions' - they cant live without ASSUREDNESS, CERTAINTY, AUTHORITY, AND CRADER?6. science is a quest for truth, but truth is not certain. truth just corresponds with reality or is when alleged facts corrspond with the actual facts.we never get beyond conjectures.sccience is the quest for truth,not certainty.

  • Ioannis Savvas
    2018-12-22 16:17

    Ο Karl Popper θεωρείται ένας από τους μεγαλύτερους φιλοσόφους του εικοστού αιώνα. Ειδικά σε θέματα επιστημολογίας έχει παίξει καθοριστικό ρόλο στη σύγχρονη επιστήμη, καθώς φώτισε και ενέπνευσε πολλούς επιστήμονες και ανέδειξε τη δουλειά τους.Στο βιβλίο του «Η ζωή είναι επίλυση προβλημάτων» περιλαμβάνονται δοκίμια, ομιλίες και συνεντεύξεις του διάσημου διανοητή σε θέματα ιστορίας, πολιτικής και βέβαια επιστήμης. Το βιβλίο αποτελεί επιτομή του έργου και των ιδεών του Popper, πάνω σε αυτά τα θέματα, όπως ο ίδιος τα παρουσιάζει στο κοινό του.Οι θέσεις του για την ιστορία («η Ιστορία τελειώνει σήμερα», φανατικός πολέμιος του ιστορικισμού και του μαρξισμού, από τα νύχια του οποίου σώθηκε πολύ νωρίς), την πολιτική (μαχητής της δημοκρατίας ως «ενός συστήματος που επιτρέπει την αλλαγή της εξουσίας χωρίς αιματοχυσία» και απολογητής της ενισχυμένης αναλογικής) και την επιστήμη (η επιστήμη είναι όπως ολόκληρη η βιολογία: δοκιμή και λάθος) είναι απλά διατυπωμένες (θαυμάζει τον Bertrand Russel) και δομημένες με τη λογική του Kant.Η έννοια της διαψευσιμότητας που εισήγαγε στην επιστημολογία έχει γίνει σύμβολο, αν και έχει δεχτεί αρκετή κριτική. Ωστόσο, ο θαυμασμός του για τον Einstein (τον αναφέρει σε πάρα πολλά παραδείγματά του) δεν τον αφήνει να δει την ομορφιά της Κβαντομηχανικής. Δηλώνει ότι διαφωνεί με τη θεωρία του Niels Bohr, αλλά όπως φαίνεται -σύμφωνα με τη δική του τεχνική της διαψευσιμότητας- κανείς ως τώρα δεν έχει καταφέρει να την καταρρίψει. Και είναι ίσως το καλύτερο παράδειγμα επιστημονικής μεταφυσικής!Στη γνωσιοθεωρία προχωράει πέρα από πολλούς διανοητές υποστηρίζοντας την «γενετικά a priori γνώση». Ακόμα και η μεταφυσική του στην επιστήμη τον κάνει να αποκλίνει από τον υποτιθέμενο θετικισμό του Κύκλου της Βιέννης.Στο μόνο σημείο που διαφωνώ μαζί του είναι οι απόψεις του πάνω στο διαχωρισμό σώματος-ψυχής. Ακόμα και ο ορισμός αυτού του θέματος κάνει αποδεκτό εξ αρχής τον δυισμό αυτό. Δυστυχώς, η σύγχρονη νευροφυσιολογία δεν έχει εντοπίσει ακόμη το «κέντρο» της ψυχής στον εγκέφαλο. Νομίζω πως όλα είναι απλά συνάψεις και νευρομεταβιβαστές. Αλλιώς, πώς δρουν τα ψυχοφάρμακα;Ο Popper είναι ένας αισιόδοξος λάτρης της σύγχρονης εποχής. Υπέρμαχος του ανθρώπινου πνεύματος και ανθρωπιστής.Ένα εξαιρετικό βιβλίο που δίνει διεξόδους στη σημερινή δύσκολη εποχή!

  • Shyama Perera
    2019-01-09 13:01

    I read this book because I'd been asked to write a pamphlet on problem solving, not because I've studied philosophy or because I'm up to speed on Popper's thinking. I found the subject matter in some of the essays was really interesting and rounded and in others, there was a lot of pondering and back referring to previous works not in the book. As it turned out, Popper is talking about scientific problem solving - black ravens, white swans, rather than every day problem solving - do I leave him/how do I manage a toddler/when is the right time to ask for a raise! So... on balance, a good read because it is made up of talks and essays so you can work through at your own speed, and you really do come away knowing more.

  • Martin Adams
    2019-01-17 17:11

    great read , full of comforting ideas in the world of unsettling problems

  • Mohamad Hashem
    2019-01-07 16:08

    Great